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系統識別號 U0007-2907200914463700
論文名稱(中文) 食品安全之風險認知與資訊來源單位信任度之研究
論文名稱(英文) The perception of risks associated with food-related hazards and the perceived reliability of information sources
校院名稱 臺北醫學大學
系所名稱(中) 公共衛生學研究所
系所名稱(英) Graduate Institute of Public Health
學年度 97
學期 2
出版年 98
研究生(中文) 劉漢梅
研究生(英文) Han-Mei Liu
學號 M508096001
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
口試日期 2009-07-08
論文頁數 109頁
口試委員 委員-毛義方
指導教授-韓柏檉
委員-簡伶朱
中文關鍵字 食品安全  風險  風險認知  資訊來源信任度 
英文關鍵字 food safety  risk  perception of risks  reliability of information sources 
學科別分類
中文摘要 食品安全的事件層出不窮,導致消費者恐慌與擔憂,本研究探討消費者得知食品安全衛生訊息之管道途徑,與對食品安全衛生之風險概念,食品安全相關健康危害的風險認知及對資訊來源單位之信任度的分布情形,繼而研究基本人口學如何影響風險認知與資訊來源單位之信任度,以及如何風險溝通以改善消費大眾之風險認知與資訊來源單位之信任度。

本研究以便利取樣並面對面訪談方式調查北部大賣場購買食品之20歲以上消費者共計375人,以結構式問卷訪問消費者實品安全與衛生資訊管道與途徑、消費者食品安全之知識、對食品安全的風險認知、對資訊來源單位之信任度以及面對食品安全議題的態度與因應之行為。

消費者得知食品安全資訊從媒體部分有247位(65.9%)是經由電視新聞廣告,其次是87位(23.2%)從網際網路得知食品安全資訊;而從人員部分有156位消費者是從親朋好友(41.6%)得知,消費者認為一般民眾(包括自己)對於風險瞭解程度,大部分消費者認為自己及一般大眾的風險程度不好(佔了52%),而由以上的問卷測量也顯示,民眾對食品安全的風險知識是不足夠的尚待加強。

消費者對食品安全之知覺風險,認為重金屬污染食品、戴奧辛污染食品和傳染疾病食品較不安全且有風險(平均值分別為4.55與4.37),對此三種食品種類也較為擔心對健康有危害(平均值分別為4.35與4.18)。顯示消費者較瞭解食品的風險知識,則對此項食品的擔憂程度會下降也覺得對健康造成之風險較小,反之消費者較不瞭解食品風險知識,則擔憂程度會上升,也認為對健康造成之風險較大。

在風險認知方面,女性對食品之風險認知較男性高;男性在擔心程度與知覺風險這兩項測量因子為負相關(Beta=- 0.734;- 0.630),代表男性對食品之知覺風險與擔心程度較低;而教育程度與擔心程度之間,各教育程度皆為正相關。

資訊來源單位之信任度方面,消費者對學術機構與民間團體之信任度較高,而對政府單位與食品業者持著保留的態度。消費者認為專家學者與政府單位對於食品安全事件的說明不完整,分別有37.1%與54.4%。由此可以看出消費者的食品安全之風險知識不足,而媒體報導過度誇飾,與政府宣導不足講解不完整的情況下,造成消費者沒有足夠的判斷能力選擇值得信任的資訊來源。
英文摘要 Food relative hazards risks make consumer worry to effects health such as BSE (Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy), Avian flu, Dioxin contaminate and heavy metal contaminate food, even through food additive hazards. However consumer worry and scare about health risks, but how risks they are comprehend with? Whether government and mass media efficient in conversation with consumer? And which information sources were reliable? What element would construct the reliability? The perception of risks about food safety and which pathway gets food safety information of consumer were the topic of our thesis, also paid close attention for government to the food safety strategy.

The study location was chosen in north region about four city and countryside, include 375 consumers and use construct questionnaire to test the public perception of risks that included three dimensions of perceived risk when potential food-related hazards are assessed: perception of personal risk associated with food-related hazards (henceforth unsafe), worry about potential food risks (henceforth worry), perceived knowledge about potential food risks (henceforth risk knowledge) and the reliability of information sources. In addition, probe into how attitude and practice would consumers face the food safety issue.

247 consumers inform about food safety by way of television and commercial, and the next 87 consumers obtain the information through internet from mass media.156 consumers inform about food safety by way of relatives and friends, and the next 73 consumers obtain the information through government official from personnel. The study shows, consumers were not very clear about the unsafe food, such as Dioxin contaminated food and BSE food (average values 4.55 and 4.37); In the personal risk dimension, consumers thought that the unsafe food, heavy metal contaminated food and Dioxin contaminated food were more probably influence their health like that consumers worried more about the food safety issue of heavy metal contaminated food and Dioxin contaminated food (average values 4.35 and 4.18).

Consumers perceived lower risk but estimate self risk knowledge were enough on genetically modified food and food additives, reveal that if public understand more about food safety knowledge, public perceived lower risk and decrease worry degree about health relative hazards about food safety. Also the study showed that there were strong correlation between perceive personal risk and worry about potential food risks .

Nevertheless, female were more sensitive than male for unsafe food issue and usually have the higher perception of risks; male perceived lower risk and reduced worry degree about food relative hazards (Beta=- 0.734 ; - 0.630 ), even so there were positive correlation between every education level and worry. Generally, because of mass media were exaggerate to report the news, consumers were lack of food safety knowledge and were short of ascertain ability to choose worthy reliable information sources about food safety.
論文目次 摘要 I
ABSTRACT III
致謝 V
目錄 VII
表目錄 IX
圖目錄 X
第一章 前言 1
第一節 研究背景 1
第二節 研究動機與目的 5
第三節 研究架構 7
第四節 名詞界定 8
一、 食品安全 8
二、 暴露 9
三、 風險 9
四、 健康風險 10
五、 知覺風險 11
六、 風險認知 11
七、 風險溝通 13
第二章 文獻探討 14
第一節 風險認知 14
一、 性別差異 15
二、 個人主觀因素 17
三、 風險認知與性別、教育程度、家庭收入、職業以及年齡之相關 18
第二節 資訊來源單位之信任度 22
一、 資訊來源單位之信任度與性別、教育程度、家庭收入以及年齡之相關 23
二、 資訊來源單位之信任度與風險認知之相關 25
第三節 風險溝通 28
第三章 研究方法 31
第一節 研究方式與對象 31
第二節 研究工具 31
一、 結構式問卷 31
二、 信效度分析 33
三、 風險認知之操作型定義 36
四、 資訊來源單位之信任度之操作型定義 37
第三節 統計分析方法 38
第四章 結果與討論 39
一、 基本人口學 39
二、 風險概念與瞭解 39
三、 對食品安全之風險認知 45
四、 對食品安全議題之態度行為 50
五、 資訊來源單位之信任度 59
第五章 結論與建議 65
一、 風險概念與瞭解 66
二、 對食品安全之風險認知 67
三、 對食品安全議題之態度與行為 68
四、 資訊來源單位之信任度 70
結果與討論之圖表 72
參考文獻 88
附件一 92
附件二 101
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