進階搜尋


  查詢北醫館藏
系統識別號 U0007-1801201709491500
論文名稱(中文) 探討多一份蔬果對幼兒膳食纖維攝取量及糞便的影響
論文名稱(英文) The effect of extra veg-fruit snack serving on dietary fiber intake and feces status of preschool children
校院名稱 臺北醫學大學
系所名稱(中) 保健營養學研究所
系所名稱(英) Graduate Institute of Nutrition and Health
學年度 105
學期 1
出版年 106
研究生(中文) 莊蕙嘉
研究生(英文) Hui-Chia Chuang
學號 G556101001
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
口試日期 2016-12-29
論文頁數 93頁
口試委員 指導教授-楊淑惠
委員-韓柏檉
委員-于育萍
中文關鍵字 幼兒,便祕,水果攝取,膳食纖維 
英文關鍵字 preschool, constipation, fruit intake, dietary fiber 
學科別分類
中文摘要 增加膳食纖維、水(液體)的攝取對於預防便祕是有益健康生活的飲食形態(Rigby & Powell, 2005)。
本研究於2014年於新北市某公立幼兒園,利用在下午點心後使幼兒增加一份蔬果杯攝食,收集幼兒身高與體重、幼兒園餐點表、幼兒對蔬果杯喜好度、蔬果杯攝食量、兩日24小時攝食量、每日糞便次數及糞便性狀,以此評估幼兒膳食纖維攝食量來評估所增加的膳食纖維攝取量及是否達到每日建議攝取量,另外進一步探討增加蔬果杯對於糞便次數及性狀的變化。結果得知,完成試驗共計40位,其中3位有便祕史,同年齡不同性別比較之下得中班男孩高於女孩;同性別不同年齡比較得大班女孩身高、體重、BMI值皆高於中班女孩。蔬果杯中番茄攝食達成率59.6%、木瓜攝食達成率60.2%、芭樂攝食達成率為43.6%、水梨攝食達成率為55.7%,蔬果杯設計膳食纖維量每日約計2.5~3.0公克,第一週至第四週蔬果杯實際攝食量分別為1.5 ± 0.1公克、1.2 ± 0.2公克、1.1 ± 0.1公克、1.0 ± 0.1公克,攝食量顯著變少。分析受試者膳食纖維量≥ 10公克/天與< 10公克/天之糞便形態,結果:膳食纖維量≥ 10公克/天者在第一週排便正常人數比例顯著較高(p value < 0.05),但在第四週則無顯著差異存在。
英文摘要 To increase dietary fiber and water (liquid) intake for the prevention of constipation is the easy way to maintain healthy dietary status.
This study was conducted in a New Taipei City public kindergarten during 2014. We provided one more cup of veg-fruit as afternoon snacks and collect children’s body height and weight, kindergarten meals menu, fruits and vegetables preference, fruit and vegetable cups intake portion, 2-day 24-hour dietary record, daily feces frequency and stool status. We evaluated subjects’ dietary fiber intake to assess whether the dietary intake increased and achieved the recommendation, and further studied whether the veg-fruit and vegetable increased affected subjects’ feces changes. Results: A total of 40 subjects were completed, 3 of them had a history of constipation, and the middle-class boys were higher than girls in the same age. Higher-class girls’ have higher body height, weight and BMI of than middle-class girls. To analysis veg-fruit compliance, tomato: 59.6%, papaya: 60.2%, guava: 43.6%, and pear: 55.7%. Dietary fiber content of veg-fruit cups is 2.5~3.0/day. To analysis the fiber intake, from the first week to the fourth week were 1.5 ± 0.1, 1.2 ± 0.2, 1.1 ± 0.1, 1.0 ± 0.1 g/day, it showed the intake significantly decrease gradually. To analysis subjects’ feces status according their dietary fiber intake, there were significantly higher proportion of normal feces status in dietary fiber intake ≥ 10 g/d than < 10 g/d (p <0.05) in the first week, but not in the fourth week.
論文目次 目錄
中文摘要 i
英文摘要 ii
第一章 前言 1
第二章 文獻回顧 2
第一節 幼兒期生理及營養狀況 2
第二節 便祕與幼兒關係 15
第三節 膳食纖維定義及纖維量 25
第三章 材料與方法 32
第一節 研究目的 33
第二節 研究設計與架構 33
第三節 研究機構背景 34
第四節 研究流程 36
第四章 結果 44
第一節 基本資料及介入前排便、液體及蔬果攝食狀況 44
第二節 試驗蔬果杯重量、熱量、膳食纖維素分析 45
第三節 受試者餐點營養素分析 46
第四節 第一週至第四週蔬果杯攝食量及達成率 47
第五節 受試者第一週至第四週蔬果杯膳食纖維分析 47
第六節 介入蔬果點心第一週至第四週糞便次數與性狀 49
第五章 討論 59
第一節 幼兒生長發育狀況 59
第二節 受試幼兒園攝食餐點設計狀況 59
第三節 幼兒蔬果份量、達成率與膳食纖維攝食狀況 61
第四節 幼兒糞便形態與膳食纖維量 64
第五節 研究限制 66
第六章 結論及建議 68
第一節 結論 68
第二節 建議 68
第七章 參考文獻 70
中文部分 70
英文部份 72
附錄1 臺北醫學大學暨附屬醫院聯合人體研究倫理委員會IRB201406045核准函 78
附錄2 意願調查表 79
附錄3 Bristol Stool Form Scale 糞便形態海報-教室版 80
附錄4 飲食紀錄單 81
附錄5 餐碗 82
附錄6 臺灣麥克出版「大便的奧妙」 83
附錄7 食物份量圖 84
附錄8 糞便記綠單 85
附錄9飲食評估工具 85
附錄10 水果喜好圖卡 88
附錄11 喜好度評估 89
附錄12 蔬果杯製備與秤重 90
附錄13 蔬果杯製備 91
附錄14 受試者攝食蔬果杯情況 92


表目錄
表1衛生福利部幼兒一日飲食建議量 5
表2 4~6歲營養素攝取參考量 7
表3 國際間幼兒營養素建議攝取量 8
表4兒童及青少年身體質量指數建議值 12
表5主要兒童便祕診斷標準 19
表6 膳食纖維分類 27
表7膳食纖維攝取建議量之比較 28
表8 臺灣地區各色水果每100公克含總纖維量 31
表9 每100 公克蔬菜膳食纖維含量 32
表10受試年齡、身高、體重及BMI 50
表11介入前受試者腸道排便、液體、蔬果攝食狀況 51
表12 試驗蔬果重量、份量、熱量及膳食纖維素之分析 52
表13 試驗蔬果杯每份重量、熱量、膳食纖維量 52
表14未介入蔬果杯受試者餐點之熱量、三大營養素百分比、膳食纖維量 53
表15 介入蔬果杯受試者餐點之熱量、三大營養素百分比、膳食纖維量 54
表16第一週至第四週蔬果杯攝食量/達成率 55
表17受試者第一週至第四週介蔬果杯膳食纖維量分析 56
表18第一週及第四週受試者飲食攝取量分析 56
表19第一週及第四週受試者蔬果的喜好程度 57
圖目錄
圖1布魯斯托大便分類法BRISTOL STOOL SCALE(BSS) 20
圖 2 研究架構 34
圖 3 研究流程 36


參考文獻 中文部分
世界衛生組織WHO Child Growth Standards 取自於http://www.who.int/nutrition/publications/severemalnutrition/9789241598163/en/
山口時子(2013)今天嗯了沒﹖美便生活這樣過。台灣東販,台北。
吳子聰、陳亮恭、許曉琦、黃信彰(2003)台灣國小學童營養健康狀況調查 2001-2002 台灣國小學童便祕與相關因子的探討。衛生福利部2001-2002國民營養健康變遷調查報告。
吳幸娟、章雅惠、張新儀、潘文涵(2001)台灣地區成人攝入礦物質 (鈣、磷、鐵、鈉) 之食物來源: 1993~ 1996 國民營養健康狀況變遷調查結果。臺灣營養學會雜誌 26(3): 142-158。
沈敬人(2000)臺灣地區幼兒營養素攝取調查。輔仁大學食品營養系碩士論文。
林佳蓉、曾明淑、高美丁、葉文婷、潘文涵(1998) 國民營養健康狀況變遷調查 1993-1996 台灣地區四至十二歲兒童之飲食習慣與形態。中華民國營養學會雜誌。
林佳蓉、曾明淑、詹思萍(1997)臺灣地區一至六歲幼兒營養調查。中華營誌,22:47-61。
侯金杏、徐光華、林世忠、張仙平(2004)台北市北投區幼稚園及托兒所膳食供應之營養現況分析。健康促進暨衛生教育雜誌,21:95-110。
范光宇、黃春雄、吳穗華、許子秋(1984)。中華民國台灣地區零至陸歲兒童身高體重,頭圍,胸圍測量研究報告。中華民國營養學會雜誌。
食品藥物消費者知識服務網(2015)。2010 台灣國民營養健康狀況變遷調查結果。台北市:衛生福利部食品藥物管理署。取自:結果與討論 5- 國中生問卷等各項分析。https://consumer.fda.gov.tw/Search/List.aspx
食品藥物消費者知識服務網(2015)。2010 台灣國民營養健康狀況變遷調查結果。台北市:衛生福利部食品藥物管理署。取自:結果與討論 5-2011 臺灣地區高中生問卷等各項分析。https://consumer.fda.gov.tw/Search/List.aspx
高美丁,曾明淑,葉文婷等(1998)台灣地區居民體位及肥胖狀況。國民營養現況 (1993-1996國民營養健康狀況變遷調查)行政院衛生署143-171。
高美丁、曾明淑、葉文婷、張瑛韶、潘文涵(1993)。台灣地區居民體位及肥胖狀況國民營養健康狀況變遷調查1996: 143-171。
教育部(2012)幼兒園教保服務準則。
教育部幼兒園餐點食物內容及營養基準(2015),教育部。
陳偉德、蔡承諺、陳安琪、吳淑芬、林宗文、林曉娟(2003)。台灣地區兒童及青少年生長曲線圖;依健康體適能訂定之標準。中臺灣醫誌 8(2),85-93。
曾明淑(2000)。兒童體位之評定及影響因素。財團法人國家衛生硏究院。
曾明淑:兒童體位之評定及影響因素,國家衛生研究院論壇,國家衛生研究院,台北,2000
黃怡嘉、蔡文騰、趙碧玉等(2007)生命期營養。華格那出版,台中市(5-6-5-9)。
新北市幼兒園餐點工作資源手冊(2015),新北市政府教育局。
董事基金會/訊息公告/研究調查,取自民國104年12月1日http://nutri.jtf.org.tw/index.php?idd=10&aid=2&bid=34&cid=682
董家堯、黃韶顏(2009)幼兒營養與膳食第二版。華杏出版,台北市。
農糧署產地價格查詢系統,取自民國105年11月1日 http://apis.afa.gov.tw/pagepub/AppMainGuest.aspx
劉嫻、洪久賢(1985)幼稚園、托兒所營養衛生改善計畫報告。臺北:行政院衛生署。
蔡燕如(2015)長期追蹤兒童飲食研究:膳食纖維攝取。國立臺灣師範大學人類發展與家庭學系碩士論文。
蔣艾瑩(2008)台中縣幼兒園餐點營養現況與營養教育介入後對餐點設計者營養知識、態度及餐點設計行為之影響。靜宜大學食品營養碩士論文。
衛生福利部食品藥物管理署(2006)國民飲食指標參考手冊。2015年7月30日,取自http://www.bhp.doh.gov.tw/bhpnet/portal
衛生福利部食品藥物管理署(2011)國人膳食營養素參考攝取量及其說明(修訂第7版)。
衛生福利部食品藥物管理署(2015)臺灣地區食品營養成份資料庫。2015年7月30日,取自http://consumer.fda.gov.tw/(修訂第7版)
衛生福利部國民健康署(1999)新世紀臺灣嬰幼兒健康圖像總檔 P39-40.。
衛生福利部國民健康署(2013)兒童及青少年生長身體質量指數建議值。
衛生福利部國民健康署(2014 a)0-7歲生長曲線。
衛生福利部國民健康署(2014 b)幼兒一日飲食建議量。
衛生福利部國民健康署(2014 c)寶寶手冊 16-17。
魏柏、余保平(2006)大學便祕情況的流行病學調查 及危險因素分析•胃腸病學和肝病學雜誌,15(2),167−169。
英文部份
American Dietetic Association (1999) Nutrition standards for child-care programs.. J Am Diet Assoc 99(8): 981-988.
Arce, D. A., Ermocilla, C. A., Costa, H. (2002) Evaluation of constipation. Am Fam Physician 65(11): 2283-2290.
Arhan, P., Arhan, P., Devroede, G., Jehannin, B., Faverdin, C., Revillon, Y., Lefevre, D., Pellerin, D. (1983) Idiopathic disorders of fecal continence in children. Pediatrics 71(5): 774-779.
Arhan, P., Devroede, G., Jehannin, B., Lanza, M., Faverdin, C., Dornic, C., Persoz, B., Tetreault, L., Perey, B., Pellerin, D. (1981) Segmental colonic transit time. Dis Colon Rectum 24(8): 625-629.
Aydogdu, S., Cakir, M., Yuksekkaya, H. A., Arikan, C., Tumgor, G., Baran, M., Yagci, R. V. (2009) Chronic constipation in Turkish children: clinical findings and applicability of classification criteria. Turk J Pediatr 51(2): 146-153.
Baker, K. M. (1999) Highly corrected submicrometer grid patterning on curved surfaces. Appl Opt 38(2): 339-351.
Balasubramanian, K., Rajeswari, J., Gulab, Govil, Y. C., Agarwal, A. K., Kumar, A., Bhatia, V. (2003) Varying role of vitamin D deficiency in the etiology of rickets in young children vs. adolescents in northern India. J Trop Pediatr 49(4): 201-206.
Bassotti, G. and V. Villanacci (2013) A practical approach to diagnosis and management of functional constipation in adults. Intern Emerg Med 8(4): 275-282.
Benning, S., Technau, I. K., Fisch, P., Fradis, M., Schipper, J., Maier, W (2004) Amyloid tumor of the larynx associated with plasma cell infiltration: differential diagnosis. Ear Nose Throat J 83(12): 839-843.
Birch, L. L., Billman, J., Richards, S.S. (1984) Time of day influences food acceptability. Appetite 5(2): 109-116.
Blethyn, A. J., Verrier Jones, K., Newcombe, R., Roberts, G. M., Jenkins, H. R. (1995) Radiological assessment of constipation. Arch Dis Child 73(6): 532-533.
Bosscher, D., Deelstra, H., Van Caillie-Bertrand, M. (2002) Recent advances in the development of infant formulas: mimicking the effects of breast feeding. Nutrition 18(6): 522-523.
Bosscher, D., Van Caillie-Bertrand, M., & Deelstra, H. (2002) Daily dietary fibre intake of children, 2 to 3 years of age, living in Antwerp, Belgium. Nutrition Research, 22(12), 1401-1411.
Briley, M. E., Jastrow, S., Vickers, J., Roberts-Gray, C. (1999) Dietary intake at child-care centers and away: are parents and care providers working as partners or at cross-purposes. J Am Diet Assoc 99(8): 950-954.
Burgers, R., Bonanno, E., Madarena, E., Graziano, F., Pensabene, L., Gardner, W., Mousa, H., Benninga, M. A., Di Lorenzo, C. (2012) The care of constipated children in primary care in different countries. Acta Paediatr 101(6): 677-680.
Burnett, C. and Wilkins G. (2002) Managing children with constipation: a community perspective. J Fam Health Care 12(5): 127-132.
Castillejo, G., Bullo, M., Anguera, A., Escribano, J., Salas-Salvado, J. (2006) A controlled, randomized, double-blind trial to evaluate the effect of a supplement of cocoa husk that is rich in dietary fiber on colonic transit in constipated pediatric patients. Pediatrics 118(3): e641-648.
Chan M.F, Chan Y.L (2009) Investigating factor associated with functional constipation of primary school children in Hong Kong. JCN 19:3390-3400.
Chao, H. C., Chen, S. Y., Chen, C. C., Chang, K. W., Kong, M. S., Lai, M. W., Chiu, C. H. (2008) The impact of constipation on growth in children. Pediatr Res 64(3): 308-311.
Chen, G. D., Hu, S. W., Chen, Y. C., Lin, T. L., Lin, L. Y. (2003) Prevalence and correlations of anal incontinence and constipation in Taiwanese women. Neurourol Urodyn 22(7): 664-669.
Chien, L. Y., Liou, Y. M., Chang, P. (2011) Low defaecation frequency in Taiwanese adolescents: association with dietary intake, physical activity and sedentary behaviour. J Paediatr Child Health 47(6): 381-386.
Cooke, L. Wardle, J. Gibson, E. L. (2003) Relationship between parental report of food neophobia and everyday food consumption in 2-6-year-old children. Appetite 41(2): 205-206.
Degen, L. P. and Phillips S. F. (1996) Variability of gastrointestinal transit in healthy women and men. Gut 39(2): 299-305.
Dhingra, D., Michael, M., Rajput, H., Patil, R. T. (2012) Dietary fibre in foods: a review. J Food Sci Technol 49(3): 255-266.
Digesu, G. A., Panayi, D., Kundi, N., Tekkis, P., Fernando, R., Khullar, V. (2010) Validity of the Rome III Criteria in assessing constipation in women. Int Urogynecol J 21(10): 1185-1193.
Douwina B., Micheline V. C-B., Hendrik D. (2002) Daily dietary fibre intake of children, 2 to 3 years of age, living in Antwerp, Belgium. Nutrition Research 22:1401-1411.
Englyst, H. N., Trowell, H., Southgate, D. A., Cummings, J. H. (1987) Dietary fiber and resistant starch. Am J Clin Nutr 46(6): 873-874.
Everhart, J. E., Go, V. L., Johannes, R. S., Fitzsimmons, S. C., Roth, H. P., White, L. R. (1989) A longitudinal survey of self-reported bowel habits in the United States. Dig Dis Sci 34(8): 1153-1162.
Fisher, J. O., Liu, Y., Birch, B. J. R (2007) Effects of portion size and energy density on young children's intake at a meal. Am J Clin Nutr 86: 174-179.
Garrigues, V., Galvez, Ortiz, V., Ponce, M., Nos, P., Ponce, J. (2004) Prevalence of constipation: agreement among several criteria and evaluation of the diagnostic accuracy of qualifying symptoms and self-reported definition in a population-based survey in Spain. Am J Epidemiol 159(5): 520-526.
Ghanma, A., Puttemans, K., Deneyer M., Benninga, M.A., Vandenplas, Y (2014) Amsterdam infant stool scale is more useful for assessing children who have not been toilet trained than Bristol stool scale. Acta Paediatr 103: e91-92.
Gidding, S. S., Dennison, B. A., Birch, L. L., Daniels, S. R., Gillman, M. W., Lichtenstein, A. H., Rattay, K. T., Steinberger, J., Stettler, N., Van Horn, L. (2005) Dietary recommendations for children and adolescents: a guide for practitioners: consensus statement from the American Heart Association. Circulation 112(13): 2061-2075.
Giralt, J., Regadera, J. P., Verges, R., Romero, J., de la Fuente, I., Biete, A., Villoria, J., Cobo, J. M., Guarner, F. (2008) Effects of probiotic Lactobacillus casei DN-114 001 in prevention of radiation-induced diarrhea: results from multicenter, randomized, placebo-controlled nutritional trial. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 71(4): 1213-1219.
Grantham-McGregor, S. M. and Ani C. C. (2001) Undernutrition and mental development. Nestle Nutr Workshop Ser Clin Perform Programme 5: 1-14; discussion 14-18.
Guenther, P. M., Dodd, K. W., Reedy, J., Krebs-Smith, S. M (2006) Most Americans eat much less than recommended amounts of fruits and vegetables. J Am Diet Assoc 106(9): 1371-1379.
Hampl, J. S., Betts, N. M., Benes, B. A. (1998) The 'age+5' rule: comparisons of dietary fiber intake among 4- to 10-year-old children. J Am Diet Assoc 98(12): 1418-1423.
Heaton, K. W. and O'Donnell L. J. (1994) An office guide to whole-gut transit time. Patients' recollection of their stool form. J Clin Gastroenterol 19(1): 28-30.
Huang, R., Ho, S. Y., Lo, W. S., Lam, T. H. (2014) Physical activity and constipation in Hong Kong adolescents. PLoS One 9(2): e90193.
Hyams, J. S. (2002) Diet and gastrointestinal disease. Curr Opin Pediatr 14(5): 567-569.
Ip, K. S., Lee, W. T., Chan, J. S., Young, B. W. (2005) A community-based study of the prevalence of constipation in young children and the role of dietary fibre. Hong Kong Med J 11(6): 431-436.
Jacobs, E. J. and White E. (1998) Constipation, laxative use, and colon cancer among middle-aged adults. Epidemiology 9(4): 385-391.
Jouet, P., Sabate, J. M., Coffin, B., Lemann, M., Jian, R., Flourie, B. (2011) Fermentation of starch stimulates propagated contractions in the human colon. Neurogastroenterol Motil 23(5): 450-456, e176.
Kranz, S., Brauchla, M., Slavin, S (2012) What do we know about dietary fiber intake in children and health. Adv Nutr 3 : 47-53.
Kranz, S., Mitchell, D. C., Siega-Riz, A. M., Smiciklas-Wright, H. (2005) Dietary fiber intake by American preschoolers is associated with more nutrient-dense diets. J Am Diet Assoc 105(2): 221-225.
Kurgan, A. (1996) Health help. Fluid + fiber = frequency. Home Care Provid 1: 30.
Lane, M. M., Czyzewski, D. I., Chumpitazi, B. P., Shulman, R. J. (2011) Reliability and validity of a modified Bristol Stool Form Scale for children. J Pediatr 159(3): 437-441.e431.
Lee, W. T., Ip, K. S., Chan, J. S., Lui, N. W., Young, B. W. (2008) Increased prevalence of constipation in pre-school children is attributable to under-consumption of plant foods: A community-based study. J Paediatr Child Health 44(4): 170-175.
Lewis, S. J. and Heaton K. W. (1997) Stool form scale as a useful guide to intestinal transit time. Scand J Gastroenterol 32(9): 920-924.
Loening-Baucke V. (1993) Constipation in early childhood: patient characteristics, treatment and long term follow up. Gut 34: 1400–1404.
Loening-Baucke, V., Miele, E., Staiano, A. (2004) Fiber (glucomannan) is beneficial in the treatment of childhood constipation. Pediatrics 113(3 Pt 1): e259-264.
Longstreth, G. F., Thompson, W. G., Chey, W. D., Houghton, L. A., Mearin, F., Spiller, R. C. (2007) Functional bowel disorders. Gastroenterology 130(5): 1480-1491.
Lu, C. L., Chang, F. Y., Chen, C. Y., Luo, J. C., Lee, S. D. (2006) Significance of Rome II-defined functional constipation in Taiwan and comparison with constipation-predominant irritable bowel syndrome. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 24(2): 429-438.
Maffei, H. V. and Vicentini A. P. (2011) Prospective evaluation of dietary treatment in childhood constipation: high dietary fiber and wheat bran intake are associated with constipation amelioration. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 52(1): 55-59.
Magarey, A., Daniels, L. A., Smith, A. (2001) Fruit and vegetable intakes of Australians aged 2-18 years: an evaluation of the 1995 National Nutrition Survey data. Aust N Z J Public Health 25(2): 155-161.
Mahassadi, K. A., Ndri-Yoman, T., Attia, K. A., Ngbesso, R., Keita, A. K., Manlan, K. L. (2003) Colonic transit time in healthy Ivorian subjects. Sante 13(4): 265-268.
Marteau, P., Flourie, B., Cherbut, C., Correze, J. L., Pellier, P., Seylaz, J., Rambaud, J. C. (1994) Digestibility and bulking effect of ispaghula husks in healthy humans. Gut 35(12): 1747-1752.
Marteau, P., Flourie, B., Cherbut, B., Correze, J.L., Pellier, P (1994) Digestibility and bulking effect of ispaghula husks in healthy humans. Gut 35: 1747-1752.
McCallum, I. J., Ong, S., Mercer-Jones, M. (2009) Chronic constipation in adults. Bmj 338: b831.
McGrath, K. H., Caldwell, P. H. Y (2008) The frequency of constipation in children with nocturnal enuresis: a comparison with parental reporting. J Paediatr Child Health 44: 19-27.
Miele, E., Simeone, D., Marino, A., Greco, L., Auricchio, R., Novek, S. J., Staiano, A. (2004) Functional gastrointestinal disorders in children: an Italian prospective survey. Pediatrics 114(1): 73-78.
Morais, M. B., Vitolo, M. R., Aguirre, A. N., Fagundes-Neto, U. (1999) Measurement of low dietary fiber intake as a risk factor for chronic constipation in children. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 29(2): 132-135.
Mugie, S. M., Benninga, M. A., Di Lorenzo, C. (2011) Epidemiology of constipation in children and adults: a systematic review. Best Pract Res Clin Gastroenterol 25(1): 3-18.
Nicklas, T. A. and Hayes D. (2008) Position of the American Dietetic Association: nutrition guidance for healthy children ages 2 to 11 years. J Am Diet Assoc 108(6): 1038-1044, 1046-1037.
Nicklas, T. and R. Johnson (2004) Position of the American Dietetic Association: Dietary guidance for healthy children ages 2 to 11 years. J Am Diet Assoc 104(4): 660-677.
Nicklas, T. A., Myers, L., Farris, R. P., Srinivasan, S. R., Berenson, G. S. (1996) Nutritional quality of a high carbohydrate diet as consumed by children: The Bogalusa Heart Study. J Nutr 126(5): 1382-1388.
Nicklas, T. A., Myers, L., Berenson, G. S. (1995) Dietary fiber intake of children: the Bogalusa Heart Study. Pediatrics 96(5 Pt 2): 988-994.
Okubo, H., Sasaki, S., Murakami, K., Kim, M. K., Takahashi, Y., Hosoi, Y., Itabashi, M. (2007) Dietary patterns associated with functional constipation among Japanese women aged 18 to 20 years: a cross-sectional study. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo) 53(3): 232-238.
Padget, A. and Briley M. E. (2005) Dietary intakes at child-care centers in central Texas fail to meet Food Guide Pyramid recommendations. J Am Diet Assoc 105(5): 790-793.
Pamuk, O. N., Pamuk, G. E., Celik, A. F. (2003) Revalidation of description of constipation in terms of recall bias and visual scale analog questionnaire. J Gastroenterol Hepatol 18(12): 1417-1422.
Pan, W. H., Tzeng M. S., Yen, L. L., Hung, Y. T., Lee, L. A., Hsiao, S. Y., Yen, W. T. , Huang, P. C. (1999) Nutrition and health survey in Taiwan (NAHSIT) 1993-1996: design, contents, and operations. J of Taiwan Nutrition Society 24(1): 1-10.
Papenfus, H. A. (1998) Encopresis in the school-aged child. J Sch Nurs 14(1): 26-31.
Pollitt, E., Watkins, W. E., Husaini, M. A. (1997) Three-month nutritional supplementation in Indonesian infants and toddlers benefits memory function 8 y later. Am J Clin Nutr 66(6): 1357-1363.
Proano, M., Camilleri, M., Phillips, S. F., Brown, M. L., Thomforde, G. M. (1990) Transit of solids through the human colon: regional quantification in the unprepared bowel. Am J Physiol 258(6 Pt 1): G856-862.
Probert, C. J., Emmett, P. M., Heaton, K. W. (1993) Intestinal transit time in the population calculated from self made observations of defecation. J Epidemiol Community Health 47(4): 331-333.
Rasquin, A., Di Lorenzo, C., Forbes, D., Guiraldes, E., Hyams, J., Staiano, A., & Walker, L. (2006) Childhood functional gastrointestinal disorders: Child / Adolescent. Gastroenterology 130: 1527-1537.
Rasquin-Weber., Hymanb, P.E., Cucchiarac, S., Fleisherd, D.R., Hyamse, J.S., Millaf, P.J., & Staiano, A. (1999) Childhood functional gastrointestinal disorders. Gut 45 Suppl 2: 1160-1168.
Regan, K. S., Wambogo, E. A., Haggans, C. J. (2011) NIH and USDA funding of dietary supplement research, 1999-2007. J Nutr 141(1): 1-3.
Riediger, N. D., Shooshtari, S., Moghadasian, M. H. (2007) The influence of sociodemographic factors on patterns of fruit and vegetable consumption in Canadian adolescents. J Am Diet Assoc 107(9): 1511-1518.
Rigby, D., Powell, M. (2005) Causes of constipation through risk management. Nursing standard, 17(16), 39-46.
Roma, E., Adamidis, D., Nikolara, R., Constantopoulos, A., Messaritakis, J. (1999) Diet and chronic constipation in children: the role of fiber. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 28(2): 169-174.
Salmoirago-Blotcher, E., Crawford, S., Jackson, E., Ockene, J., Ockene, I. (2011) Constipation and risk of cardiovascular disease among postmenopausal women. Am J Med 124(8): 714-723.
Silk, D. B., Davis, A., Vulevic, J., Tzortzis, G., Gibson, G. R. (2009) Clinical trial: the effects of a trans-galactooligosaccharide prebiotic on faecal microbiota and symptoms in irritable bowel syndrome. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 29(5): 508-518.
Slavin J.L, Lloyd B. (2012) Health benefits of fruits and vegetables. Adv. Nutr.3:506-516.
Slavin, J. L. (1987) Dietary fiber: classification, chemical analyses, and food sources. J Am Diet Assoc 87: 1164-1171.
Sonnenberg, A. and Koch T. R. (1989) Epidemiology of constipation in the United States. Dis Colon Rectum 32(1): 1-8.
Soret, R., Chevalier, J., De Coppet, P., Poupeau, G., Derkinderen, P., Segain, J. P., Neunlist, M. (2010) Short-chain fatty acids regulate the enteric neurons and control gastrointestinal motility in rats. Gastroenterology 138(5): 1772-1782.
Spill, M.K., Birch, L. L., Roe, L. S., Rolls, B. J (2010) Eating vegetables first: the use of portion size to increase vegetable intake in preschool children Am J Clin Nutr 91:1237-1243.
Staiano, A., Simeone D., Del Giudice E., Miele E., Tozzi A., Toraldo C. (2000) Effect of the dietary fiber glucomannan on chronic constipation in neurologically impaired children. J Pediatr 136(1): 41-45.
Staiano A1, Staiano, A., Simeone, E., Giudice, D., Miele, E. (2000) Effect of the dietary fiber glucomannan on chronic constipation in neurologically impaired children. J Pediatr 136: 41-45.
Stephen, A. M. and J. H. Cummings (1980) Mechanism of action of dietary fibre in the human colon. Nature 284(5753): 283-284.
Sullivan, M.L., Grigsby, K.N., Bradford B.J. (2012) Effects of wet corn gluten feed on ruminal pH and productivity of lactating dairy cattle fed diets with sufficient physically effective fiber. J Dairy Sci 95: 5213-5220.
Tabbers, M. M., Boluyt, N., Marjolein Y. Berger, M.Y., Benninga, M.A., (2011) Nonpharmacologic treatments for childhood constipation: systematic review. Pediatrics 128: 753-761.
Tinmouth, J., Tomlinson, G., Kandel, G., Walmsley, S., Steinhart, H. A., Glazier, R. (2007) Evaluation of Stool frequency and stool form as measures of HIV-related diarrhea. HIV Clin Trials 8(6): 421-428.
Tota, G., Messina, M., Meucci, D., Piro, E., Di Maggio, G., Garzi, A., Nocentini, S., Zingaro, P. (1998) Use of radionuclides in the evaluation of intestinal transit time in children with idiopathic constipation. Pediatr Med Chir 20(1): 63-66.
Van den Berg, M. M., Benninga, M. A., Di Lorenzo, C. (2006) Epidemiology of childhood constipation: a systematic review. Am J Gastroenterol 101(10): 2401-2409.
Van der Plas, R. N., Benninga, M. A., Taminiau, J. A., Buller, H. A. (1997) Treatment of defaecation problems in children: the role of education, demystification and toilet training. Eur J Pediatr 156(9): 689-692.
Waber, D. P., Vuori-Christiansen, L., Ortiz, N., Clement, J. R., Christiansen, N. E., Mora, J. O., Reed, R. B., Herrera, M. G. (1981) Nutritional supplementation, maternal education, and cognitive development of infants at risk of malnutrition. Am J Clin Nutr 34(Suppl 4): 807-813.
Wardle, J., Gibson, E. L (2003) Relationship between parental report of food neophobia and everyday food consumption in 2-6-year-old children. Appetite 41(2): 205-206.
Willett, J. B., Singer, J. D., Martin, N. C. (1998) The design and analysis of longitudinal studies of development and psychopathology in context: statistical models and methodological recommendations. Dev Psychopathol 10(2): 395-426.
Zaslavsky, C., da Silveira, T. R., Maguilnik, I. (1998) Total and segmental colonic transit time with radio-opaque markers in adolescents with functional constipation. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 27(2): 138-142.
論文全文使用權限
  • 同意授權瀏覽/列印電子全文服務,於2018-01-24起公開。


  • 若您有任何疑問,請與我們聯絡!
    臺北醫學大學 圖書館 簡莉婷
    E-mail:etds@tmu.edu.tw
    Tel:(02) 2736-1661 ext.2519
    Fax:(02) 2737-5446