進階搜尋


  查詢北醫館藏
系統識別號 U0007-1704200715050344
論文名稱(中文) 影響醫院員工採行健康促進生活型態之相關因素探討
論文名稱(英文) Determinants of Reported Health Promoting Lifestyle among a Hospital Employees
校院名稱 臺北醫學大學
系所名稱(中) 護理學研究所
系所名稱(英) Graduate Institute of Nursing
學年度 94
學期 2
出版年 95
研究生(中文) 陳純珣
研究生(英文) Chun-Shun Chen
學號 M406090011
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
口試日期
論文頁數 115頁
口試委員 指導教授-陳靜敏
中文關鍵字 健康促進生活型態  健康促進醫院  健康環境之使用與期待 
英文關鍵字 health promotion lifestyle  health promotion hospital  expectation and utilization of supportive environment for health 
學科別分類
中文摘要 奠基於世界衛生組織「渥太華健康促進憲章」中,透過「健康醫院」以實踐「調整健康服務取向」的健康促進策略,台北市政府衛生局於民國91年及94年開始舉辦健康醫院評鑑;然各醫院推動員工採行健康促進生活型態之成效如何,仍需進一步之探討。本研究以台北市某通過健康醫院評鑑之醫學中心各部門員工為研究對象,採橫斷式調查研究,以結構式的自填問卷收集資料,共收案594人(回收率89%),以瞭解醫院員工採行健康促進生活型態的狀況,探討醫院員工之人口學特質、工作特性、院內員工對健康環境的期待及使用情形是否會影響其採取健康促進的生活型態,並找出影響醫院員工採取健康促進行為的主要因素。 本研究對象以女性、大學畢、未婚者、正常體型、無宗教信仰、收入介於40000-59999元、有自費保險、沒有罹病、沒有子女者居多,平均年齡為30.84+7.94歲,自覺健康狀況平均得分為5.91+1.36分(範圍在3-9分)。另外,工作特性以護理部門、工作時數8-10小時、非固定輪休者、需要值班、站走型居多,平均工作年資為5.86+4.58年,工作負荷平均偏高(11.05+2.76分)。在健康促進生活量表的平均得分為1.86+.82分,介於偶爾如此到經常如此之間,在次量表部分平均得分以工作保護(2.19+ .62分)及人際支持(2.14+ .59分)最高,而以運動(1.17+ .62分)得分最低。員工對健康環境的期待,平均得分以對心理健康(4.93+ .70分)及癌症防治(4.43+ .58分)最為迫切,運動(4.17+ .70分)及減重(4.12+ .64分)最低;相反的員工對健康環境的使用部分,平均得分卻以對飲食(1.25+ .82分)及減重(1.04+ .72分)最多,以戒菸(0.83+0.83分)最少。在健康促進生活型態較佳者之特質為:已婚、有信仰、收入每月在60000-79999元之間、有子女及身為主管者。另外,年齡、自覺健康狀況、工作年資對健康促進生活型態有統計上顯著正相關,而自認工作負荷則與健康促進生活型態呈負相關。員工對於各項健康促進環境的期待情形及使用情形於癌症防治這一項之外,其餘都與健康促進生活型態呈現統計上顯著正相關。經由複迴歸分析發現,可預測健康促進生活型態之變項為:員工對健康環境之期待、自覺健康狀況、信仰、健康環境之使用、教育程度、自覺工作負荷、職位,共可解釋健康促進生活型態的變異總量之27%。依據本研究結果建議未來在健康醫院評鑑的內容上能增加對於醫院健康環境的要求,以增進員工健康促進生活型態。
英文摘要 Based on “Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion” (WHO, 1986), health promotion hospital development is the delivery of reorienting health services. Taipei City government, Department of Health there held Health promotion hospital accreditation in 2002 and 2005, however, practice of health promotion lifestyle among employees of accredited health promotion hospitals remains unknown. The target population of this study was all types of employees in the hospital, a cross-sectional design was utilized, and the structured questionnaire was used. A total of 594 cases (response rate 89%) were collected from a medical center in Taipei which was accredited as health promotion hospital in both years. The purpose of this study was: 1) to examine health promotion lifestyle profile (HPLP) among employees in the hospital; 2) to explore the relationships of demographic and work characteristics, expectation and utilization of supportive environment for health in the hospital on employees’ practice of HPLP; and 3) to determine the most important factors that predict HPLP. The research subjects was mainly women, university graduated, unmarried, insured, without kid, religious belief or major chronic conditions, and with normal BMI and income level between 40000-59999 NT dollars. The mean age was 30.84+7.94 years old, and perceived health status was 5.91 (SD=1.36, range 3-9). In terms of work characteristics, majority of subjects were from nursing department, working 8-10 hours per day, without regular holidays, required on duty shift, with stand-walking physical activity pattern. The mean working experience was 5.86+4.58 years, and perceived working load was very high (11.05+2.76). The total HPLP was 1.86+ 0.82, indicating that subjects only “occasionally” and “often” practice health promotion behaviors. Comparing 7 subscales of HPLP, subjects ranked highest on work protection (2.19+0.62) and interpersonal support (2.14+0.59), and lowest on exercise (1.17+0.62). On the expectation of supported environment for health, the employees perceived psychological health (4.93+0.70) and cancer prevention (4.43+0.58 ) were the most urgent, and exercise (4.17+0.70) and weight control (4.12+0.64) the least. On the opposite, employees utilized these environment facilities highest on nutrition (1.25+0.82) and weight control (1.04+0.72), and lowest on tobacco control (0.83+0.83). Factors positively related to HPLP were: married, with faith, income level of 60000-79999 dollars per month, having children and worked as the manager. In addition, age, perceived health status and work experience also positively correlated with HPLP. Perceived working load was on the other hand negatively correlated with HPLP. All subscales of expectation and utilization of supportive environment for health, except cancer prevention, were positively correlated with HPLP. Result of stepwise regression indicated that expectation of the health environment, perceived health status, faith, utilization of the health environment, education, perceived working load, job position could significantly predict HPLP, and could explain 27% of total variance. Reinforce on supportive environment for health was recommended for health promoting hospital accreditation based on results of this study.
論文目次 目 錄 頁數 第一章 緒論…………………………………………………... 1 第一節 研究背景及重要性………………………… 2 第二節 研究動機…………………………………… 4 第三節 研究目的…………………………………… 6 第四節 名詞解釋…………………………………… 6 第二章 文獻查證……………………………………………... 8 第一節 健康城市與健康醫院……………………… 8 第二節 健康促進生活型態的相關概念…………… 11 第三節 支持性環境對於採取健康生活型態之影響 29 第四節 研究架構…………………………………… 31 第五節 研究假設…………………………………… 33 第三章 研究方法……………………………………………... 35 第一節 研究設計…………………………………… 35 第二節 研究對象…………………………………… 37 第三節 研究工具…………………………………… 37 第四節 研究工具之信效度檢定…………………… 39 第五節 研究資料收集過程………………………… 43 第六節 資料分析方式……………………………… 44 第四章 研究結果……………………………………………... 45 第一節 研究對象人口特質及工作特性之描述…… 45 第二節 醫院員工對健康環境的期待及使用情形的描述…………………………………………. 48 第三節 健康促進生活型態採行情形……………… 55 目 錄 頁數 第四節 人口特質、工作特性、員工對於健康促進環境的期待及健康資源使用情形在採行健康促進生活型態影響之分析………………. 59 第五節 預測影響健康促進生活型態之變項…...…. 78 第五章 討論…………………………………………………... 80 第一節 研究對象之比較…………………………… 80 第二節 健康促進生活型態及健康促進環境期待與使用情形…………………………………… 82 第三節 人口學特質、工作特性、員工對於健康環境的期待及健康資源使用情形在採行健康促進生活型態之影響……………….……… 84 第六章 結論與建議…………………………………………... 90 第一節 結論………………………………………… 90 第二節 建議………………………………………… 92 第三節 研究限制…………………………………… 95 參考文獻………………………………………………………... 96 中文部份…………………………………………………. 96 英文部分…………………………………………………. 101 附錄……………………………………………………………... 107 附錄一 研究問卷………………………………………… 107 附錄二 專家效度名單…………………………………… 113 附錄三 研究計畫審查申請表…………………………… 114 圖表目次 頁數 圖一、研究架構………………………………………………... 32 圖二、研究流程………………………………………………… 36 表一、研究工具信度檢定……………………………………… 42 表二、人口學特質描述………………………………………… 46 表三、工作特性描述…………………………………………… 47 表四、對醫院健康環境的期待….……………………………… 50 表五、對醫院健康資源的使用情形…………………………… 52 表六、對於健康環境的期待及使用情形……………………… 54 表七、健康促進生活型態採行情形…………………………… 56 表八、人口學特質對於採行健康促進生活型態之差異……… 63 表九、工作特性對於採行健康促進生活型態之差異………… 71 表十、人口學特質及工作特性對於健康促進生活型態之皮爾森相關分析……………………………………………... 75 表十一、員工對於健康環境的期待與健康促進生活型態之皮爾森相關分析………………………………………… 76 表十二、員工對於健康環境的使用情形與健康促進生活型態之皮爾森相關分析……………..…………………….. 77 表十三、健康促進生活型態之複迴歸分析…………………… 79
參考文獻 中文部份 于漱(1988)?台北市20-60歲居民預防性健康型為之調查研究?公共衛生,14(3),391-405。 王美玲(2005)?以醫院為基礎之健康促進計劃對社區民眾健康況與健康行為改善之成效?未發表碩士論文,台北醫學大學,台北。 王英偉(2001)?醫療場所中的衛生教育與健康促進?健康促進暨衛生教育雜誌,21,37-53。 王秀紅、邱啟潤、王瑞霞、李建廷(1992)?婦女健康促進行為及其相關因素的探討?公共衛生,19(3),251-265。 尹祚芊、林小玲、王怡婷(2004)?退休領健康促進生活型態之研究。榮總護理,21(4),375-388。 方進隆、陳玉英(1997)?社區介入策略對工作場所同仁健康體能的影響研究?中華民國體育學會體育學報,24,133-144。 行政院主計處(2005)?台灣地區人壽保險及年金保險歷年投保率暨普及率?摘自6月28日,2006,http://www.lia-roc.org.tw/index06/ regulation/94regu17.htm。 行政院衛生署(2006)?肥胖的定義及處理原則?摘自6月24日, 2006, http://food.doh.gov.tw/chinese/health/health_5.htm。 行政院衛生署(1999)?國民保健三年計劃?台北:行政院衛生署。 行政院衛生署國民健康局(2006)?社區健康營造中心運作之監測與評價。台北:行政院衛生署國民健康局。 行政院衛生署國民健康局(2002)?社區健康營造工作手冊?台北:行政院衛生署國民健康局。 呂學琳(2002)?三軍總醫院發展健康促進醫院組織環境之研究?未發表碩士論文,高雄醫學院護理研究所,高雄。 宋素真、黃瑞美、林麗英(2001)?臨床護理人員與實習護生健康促進生活型態及相關因素之探討?榮總護理,18(2),147-158。 宋素真(1997) ?臨床護理人員健康促進生活型態及其相關因素之探討 。未發表碩士論文,高雄醫學院,高雄。 李蘭、陸玓玲、李隆安、黃美維、潘怜燕、鄧肖琳(1995)?台灣地區成人的健康行為探討:分佈情形、因素結構和相關因素?中華衛誌,14(4),358-368。 李怡娟、陳慈立、吳淑芳(2004)?社區保健志工衝能程度及其健康促進生活型態行為之探討—以三芝鄉為例?榮總護理,21(4),389-399。 李琳琳、張玲珍、黃金淑、郭憲文(1997)?中部地區某教學醫院醫護人員對工作環境危害認知之研究?中華職業衛生醫學雜誌,4(2),83-92。 邱靜如、劉貴雲(2003)?職場員工對健康促進活動認知、態度、需求、參與情形與健康生活型態之現況及相關因素探討?健康促進劑衛生教育雜誌,23,29-42。 邱淑媞(2002年12月20日)?全國首創健康醫院評鑑結果?台北市政府衛生局新聞稿。 邱淑媞(2001)?宜蘭縣營造健康社區之過程與現況?護理雜誌,48(1),28-35。 林女理(2001)?學校護理人員健康促進生活型態及其相關因素之探討?未發表碩士論文,國立台灣大學,台北。 林金定、羅慶徽、呂學琳、嚴嘉楓、朱若明(2005)?職場健康促進:「健康促進醫院」組織發展之初探?中華職業衛生雜誌,12(3),125-134。 林宜平(2000)?職場健康促進?健康促進通訊,12(1)。 林雅雯、游琇茜、翁政玉、黃于晏、楊琇惠、劉智鋼(2003)?醫院員工健康促進生活型態及其決定因素之探討—以新竹某區域教學醫院為例?醫務管理期刊,4(4),77-90。 林麗香(1998)?健康都市理論?中國地方自治,51(2),15-29。 林麗香(1997)?健康都市理論?中國行政評論,6(4),121-145。 林金定、羅慶徽、呂學琳、羅元婷(2002)?健康促進醫院:理論與澳洲發展經驗分析?醫務管理期刊,4(1),1-12。 林雅雯(2004)?世界衛生組織健康促進醫院計畫之探討與台灣推行之建議?醫務管理期刊,5(1),1-18。 洪麗玲、高淑芬(1997)?護專學生健康行為自我效能與健康促進生活方式之探討?長庚護理,8(3),52-65。 裘召莙(1997)?醫院內的職業傷害?榮總護理,15(4),428-435。 徐暉(2001)?健康促進與工作場所健康促進?勞工安全衛生簡訊,48,2-4。 秦毛漁、邱啟潤、蕭正光、盧德發(2003)?社區獨居老人自覺健康狀況及醫療服務使用相關性之探討?慈濟護理雜誌,2(2),66-74。 高淑芬、蔡秀敏、洪麗玲(1999)?員工健康促進生活方式之初步探討?元培學報,6,43-68。 張彩秀、黃乾全(2002)?中老年健康促進生活型態與自覺健康狀態之關係。衛生教育學報,17,15-30。 陳美燕、周傳姜、黃秀華、王名城、邱獻章、廖張京棣(1997a)?健康促進生活方式量表中文版之修訂與測試?長庚護理,8(1),15-24。 陳美燕、盧朱滿、林淑瓊、廖張京棣、史麗珠(1997b)?健康促進指導對內科門診病人生活方式改變的成效。護理研究,5(5),390-400。 陳美燕、廖張京棣(1995)?桃園地區護理學生與護理人員執行健康促進生活方式之初步探討?護理研究,3(1),6-16。 陳美燕(1997)?預防慢性病從健康促進生活方式開始?長庚護理,5(2),57-61。 梁金麗(2000)?社區老人生活品質及其相關因素之探討。未發表碩士論文,國立台北護理學院,台北。 彭鳳美(2001)?民眾生活型態、醫療資源利用與健康狀況之探討-以新竹科學園區員工為例。未發表碩士論文,國立陽明大學,台北。 湯慧娟、宋一夫(2004)?老人健康促進生活型態與心理幸福滿足感之相關研究?人文與社會學報,1(5),15-27。 黃毓華、邱啟潤(1996)?健康促進生活型態量表信效度之評估?高雄醫學科學雜誌,12,529-537。 葉琇珠(2000)?大學生健康概念與健康促進生活型態之探討。未發表碩士論文,國立陽明大學,台北。 廖秀幸(2001)?醫院參與社區健康營造之實証分析。未發表碩士論文,中國醫藥學院,台中。 劉雪娥(1999)?健康促進之概念?台灣醫學,3(2),235-237。 劉俐蓉、姜逸群(2005)?台北市國中教職員健康行為自我效能和健康促進生活型態之相關研究?中華職業醫學雜誌,12(1),21-32。 蔣志賢、林金定、羅元婷、羅慶徽(2004)?歐洲地區推行「健康促進醫院」個案比較分析?台灣家庭醫學雜誌,14(2),94-103。 賴瓊儀(2002)?中年人生活型態之探討。未發表碩士論文,國立陽明大學,台北。 蕭順蘭(2001)?台北縣公共衛生護理人員健康促進生活型態之探討。未發表碩士論文,國立陽明大學,台北。 英文部分 Alexa, K. (2006). Building health promotion interventions for persons with chronic disabling conditions. Family & Community Health, 29(1), 28-34. Astrom, A. N., & Rise J. (2001). Socio-economic differences in patterns of health and oral health behavioru in 25 year old Norwegians. Clinical Oral Investigations, 5(2), 122-128. Aujoulat, I., Simonelli, F., & Deccache, A. (2006). Health promotion needs of children and adolescents in hospitals: A revies. Patient Eduction Counseling, 61(1), 23-32. Bagwell, M. M., & Bush, H.A. (2000). Improving health promotion for blue-collar workers. Journal of Nursing Care Quality, 14(4), 65-71. Brenstine, M., Rothstine, H., & Cohen, J. (2001). Sample power 2.0. Chicago: SPSS Inc. Breslow, L. (1999). From disease prevention to health promotion. JAMA, 281(11), 1030-1033. CDC(1998). Self-assessed health status and selected behavioral risk factors among persons with and without health-care coverage-united states, 1994-1995. JAMA, 279(14), 1063. Chalmers, K., Seguire, M., & Brown, J. (2002). Tobacco use and baccalaureate nursing students: a study of their attitudes, beliefs and personal behaviors. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 40(1), 17-24. Chang, L. C., Li, I. C., Hsiao, B. Y., Cheng,W. E., & Lin, S. F. (2004). A preliminaty survey of the health behaviors of community leaders. Chang Gung Institute of Nursing, 12(2), 92-102. Cleary, M., & Walter, G. (2005). Towards a healthier lifestyle for staff of a psychiatric hospital: Description of a pilot programme. International Journal of Mental Health Nursing, 14(1), 32-36. De Bourdeaudhuij, I., & Van Oost, P. (1999). A cluster-analytical approach toward physical activity and other health related behaviors. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 31(4), 605-612. Dever, G. E. A. (1976). An epidemiological model for health policy analysis. Social Indicators Research, 2, 453-466. DeVillis, R. F. (1991). Scale development: Theory and application. (pp.51-90). Newbury Park, CA: Stage. Duaso, M. J., & Cheung, P. (2002). Health promotion and lifestyle advice in a general practice: What do patients think? Journal of Advanced Nursing, 39(5), 472-479. Duffy, M. (1997). Determinants of reported health promotion behaviors in employed Mexican American women. Health Care for Women International, 18(2), 149-163. Duffy, M. E. (1988). Determinants of health promotion in midlife women. Nursing Research, 37(6), 358-362. Duffy, M. E., Rossow, R., & Hernandez, M. (1996). Correlates of health-promotion activities in employed Mexican American wonmen. Nursing Research, 45(1), 18-24. Gallagher, S. M. (2002). Obesity and the skin in the critical care setting. Criical Care Nursing Quarterlyt. 25(1), 69-75. Garcia, A. (2006). Is health promotion relevant across cultures and the socioeconomic spectrum? Family & Community Health. 29(1), 20S-27S. Gillis, A. J. (1993). Determinants of a health promoting lifestyle: An integrative review. Journal of Advances Nursing, 18(3), 345-353. Gostin, L. O., & Javitt, G. T. (2001). Health promotion and the first amendment: Government control of the informational environment. The Milbank Quartarly, 79(4), 574-578. Haddock, J., & Burrows, C. (1997). The role of the nurse in health promotion: An evaluation of a smoking cessation programme in surgical pre-admission clinics. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 26(6), 1098-1110. Harris, D. M., & Guten, S. (1980). Health protective behavior: An exploratory study. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 20(1), 17-29. Hope, A., Kelleher, C. C., & O’Connor M. (1998). Lifestyle practices and the health promotion environment of hospital nurses. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 28(2), 438-444. Kenzer, M. (2000). Healthy cities: A guide to the literature. Public Health Reports, 115(2-3), 279-289. Khalid, A. A. (2000). Frquency of and prevention measures for needle-stick injuries among hospital healthcare workers in Saudi Arabia. Journal for Healthcare Quality, 22(6), 23-28. Kichbusch, I. (2003). The contribution of the world health organization to a new public health and health promotion. American Journal of Public Health , 93(3), 383-388. Kosgeroglu, N., Ayranci, U., Vardareli, E., & Dincer, S. (2004). Occupational exposure to hepatitis infection among Turkish nurses: Frequency of needle exposure, sharps injuries and vaccination. Epidemiology and Infection, 131(1), 27-33. Lusk, S. L., Kerr, M. J., & Ronis, D. L. (1995). Health-promoting lifestyles of blue-collar skilled trade, and white-collar workers. Nursing Research, 44(1), 20-24. Lynn, M. R. (1986). Determination and quantification of content validity. Nursing Research, 35(6), 382-385. Nourjah, P., Wagener, D. K., Eberhardt, M., & Horowitz, A. M.(1994). Knowledge of risk factors and risk behaviors related to coronary heart disease among blue and white collar males. Journal of Public Health Policy, 15(4), 443-459. Pelikan, J. M. ( 2001). The development of the European HPH project. Retrieved Feburay 24, 2006, from http://www.univie.ac.at/hph/presentation/03122001/inhalt.html/ Pender, N. J. (1990). Expressing health through lifestyle patterns. Nursing Science Quarterly, 3(3), 115-122. Peterson, M. & Dounnagan, T. (1998). Analysis of a worksite health promotion program’s impact of job satisfaction. JOEM, 40(11), 973-979. Pullen, C., Walker, S. N., & Fiandt, K. (2001). Determinants of health promoting lifestyle behaviors in rural older women. Family Community Health, 24(2), 49-72. Ranter, P. A., Johnson. J. L., & Jeffery, B. (1998). Examining emotional, physical, social, spiritual health as determinants of self-rated health status. American Journal of Health Promotion, 12(4), 275-282. Roger, B. (1991). A study of hospital employee health programs. American Journal of Infection Control, 39(4), 157-166. Shinopulos, N. M., & Jacobson, J. (1999). Relationship between health promotion lifestyle profiles and patient outcomes of bilfeedback therapy for urinary incontinence. Urologic Nursing, 19(4), 249-253. Sorensen, G., Stoddard, A., Hunt, M. K., Hebert, J. R., Ockene, J. K., Avrunin, J. S., Himmelstein, J., & Hammond, S. K. (1998). The effect of a health promotion–health protection intervention on behavior change: The well workers study. American Journal of Public Health, 88(11), 1685-1690. Stave, G. M., Muchmore, L., & Gardner, H. (2003). Quantifiable impact of the contract for health and wellness: Health behaviors health care costs, disability, and workers’ compensation. The Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 45(2), 109-117. Stein, A. D., Khoury, S. S., & Zuidema, R. A. (2000). Financial incentives, participation in employer-sponsored health promotion, and changes in employee health and productivity: Health plus health quotient program. The Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 42(11), 1148-1155. Suh, Y. (1994). A comparative study on health promotion lifestyles between employed and unemployed women. Kanhohak Tamgu, 3(1), 1994. Thomson, P., & Kohli, H. (1997). Health promotion training needs analysis: An integral role for clinical nurses in Lanarkshire Scotland. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 26(3), 507-514. Viau, P. A., Padula, C. A., & Eddy, B. (2002). An exploration of health concerns & health-promotion behaviors in pregnant women over age 35. American Journal of Maternal Child Nursing, 27(6), 328-334. Voss, M., Floderus, B., & Diderichsen, F. (2004). How do job characteristics, family situation, domestic work, and lifestyle factors relate to sickness absence? A study based on sweden post. The American College of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 46(11), 1134-1143. Walker, S. N., Volkan, K., Scehrist, K. R.,& Pender, N. J. (1988). Health-promotion lifestyle of older adults: Comparisions with young and middle age adults, correlates and patterns. Advances in Nursing Science, 11(1), 76-90. Wang, H. H. (1999). Predictors of health promotion lifestyle among three ethnic groups of elderly rural women in Taiwan. Public Health Nursing, 16(5), 321-328. Ware, J. E., Brook, R, H., Davis, A. R., & Gandek. B. (1994). SF-36 Health Survey Manual and Interpretation Guide. Boston: The Health Institur, New Eegland Medical Center. Whitehead, D. (2006). Workplace health promotion: The role and responsibility of health care managers. Journal of Nursing Management, 14(1), 59-68. WHO( 2001). The Budapest Declaration on Health Promotion Hospitals. Retrieved February 24, 2006, from http://www.who.dk/document/IHB.hphbudadect.pgf Wilsgaad, T., Jacobsen, B. K., & Arnesen, E. (2005). Determining lifestyle correlates of body mass index using multilevel analyses: The Tromso Study, 1979-2001 . American Journal of Epidemiology, 162(12), 1179-1188. Yassi, A., & Hancock, T. (2005). Patient safety-worker safety: Building a culture of improve healthcare worker and patient well-being. Healthcare Quarterly, 8(6), 32-38. Yin, W. T., Pender, N. (2005). A panel study of physical activity in Taiwanese youth: Testing the revised health-promotion model, Family & Community Health, 28(2), 2005.
論文全文使用權限
  • 不同意授權瀏覽/列印電子全文服務。


  • 若您有任何疑問,請與我們聯絡!
    臺北醫學大學 圖書館 簡莉婷
    E-mail:etds@tmu.edu.tw
    Tel:(02) 2736-1661 ext.2519
    Fax:(02) 2737-5446