進階搜尋


  查詢北醫館藏
系統識別號 U0007-1704200714541733
論文名稱(中文) 吸菸對抗結核藥物治?成效之影響
論文名稱(英文) The Impact of Smoking on the Antituberculosis Therapy
校院名稱 臺北醫學大學
系所名稱(中) 藥學研究所
系所名稱(英) Graduate Institute of Pharmacy
學年度 93
學期 2
出版年 94
研究生(中文) 姜易醇
研究生(英文) Yi-Chun Chiang
學號 M301092024
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
口試日期
論文頁數 103頁
口試委員 指導教授-李仁愛
指導教授-陳香吟
中文關鍵字 抗結核藥物治療  吸菸  失落 
英文關鍵字 Antituberculosis  smoking  Default 
學科別分類
中文摘要 吸菸與結核病兩者皆為世界關注的問題。吸菸會影響呼吸道功能,導致呼吸 道免疫力降低,容易感染呼吸道傳染病。近年來,在結核病與吸菸高盛行率的國 家,吸菸與結核病的相關性被廣泛討論。研究證明吸菸為結核病的發生率、死亡 率、以及抗結核藥物治療的依順性不良之危險因子。本研究目的為探討吸菸對抗 結核病藥物治療之影響,包括治療結果與藥物不良反應之產生等。 本研究收集2001 年7 月1 日至2003 年6 月30 日間,確診為結核病並且使 用抗結核藥物治療之病患,配對分為吸菸組與非吸菸組。收集包括性別、年齡、 身高、體重、診斷、臨床症狀、過去病史、現在疾病史、菸酒習慣、抗結核藥物 及其他藥物劑量、生化檢查值 (肝腎功能檢查值、尿酸值、白蛋白值等)、細菌 學檢查值 (痰液抹片檢查、耐酸性細菌培養)、血液檢查值 (血小板數、紅血球、 血紅素等)、藥物不良反應、治療結果等變項。進行單一變項及多變項分析。 本研究收樣401 人,配對後吸菸組共57 人,非吸菸組共114 人,合計171 位個案。結果顯示每日吸菸量、發生藥物引起的皮膚反應為失落率之相關危險因 子,Odds ratio 分別為1.867 (95% CI 1.053-3.311)、3.474 (95% CI 1.219-9.902), 另外病患有高血壓病史是失落的預防因子 (OR 0.405, 95% CI 0.173-0.948)。 本研究結果發現病患之每日吸煙量為抗結核藥物治療失落率之危險因子,但 需要更大型的研究樣本來證實吸菸與抗結核藥物治療結果之相關性。另外,吸菸 與飲酒互為混淆因子,吸菸組中有飲酒習慣者之比例明顯較非吸菸者高 (56.1% vs. 13.2%, p <0.001)。在未來進行相關研究時,此問題值得研究者重視。
英文摘要 Tobacco and tuberculosis (TB) are both serious problems in the world. The influence of smoking on TB was studies in the countries with high prevalence of both smoking and TB. Studies indicated that smoking was a risk factor for TB morbidity, mortality and nonadherence. The objective of current study was to elucidate the impact of smoking on the outcomes of antituberculosis pharmacotherapy. A retrospective matched comparative study was carried out in Taipei Municiple Wan-Fang Medical Center. Patients diagnosed to have tuberculosis and treated with antituberculosis drugs from July 1, 2001 to June 30, 2003 were recruited. The cohort was then matched by age and gender and separated into two groups, smoker and nonsmoker. Patient demographics data, disease status, lab data, bacteriological reading, adverse drug reactions, and therapeutic outcomes were collected. Univariate analysis and multiple logistic regression were performed. A total of 171 TB patients were matched, including 57 smokers and 114 nonsmokers. Treatment default was found to be correlated with tobacco comsumption. Daily tobacco consumption and drug induced skin reaction were the risk factors of treatment default with odds ratio of 1.867 (95% CI 1.053-3.311) and 3.474 (95% CI 1.219-9.902). Concurrent disease of hypertention was a preventing factor of treatment default (OR 0.405, 95% CI 0.173-0.948). Current study showed that daily tobacco consumption was a risk factor for treatment default. Since a higher drinker proportion was found in smoker than nonsmoker (56.1% vs. 13.2%, p <0.001), the confounding effect of alcoholism needs further clarification. Studies with larger sample size are needed in the future.
論文目次 目錄............................................................................................................................... i 圖目錄......................................................................................................................... iv 表目錄.......................................................................................................................... v 中文摘要.................................................................................................................... vii 英文摘要...................................................................................................................viii 第一章 序論.............................................................................................................. 1 第二章 文獻探討...................................................................................................... 2 2.1 菸害問題的流行病學與防治政策............................................................ 2 2.1.1 全球的菸害現況............................................................................ 2 2.1.2 台灣的菸害現況及防制................................................................ 4 2.1.3 吸菸對呼吸道功能之影響............................................................. 6 2.1.4 吸菸對藥物代謝之影響................................................................ 9 2.2 結核病的流行病學與防治政策............................................................. 10 2.2.1 全球的結核病現況...................................................................... 10 2.2.2 台灣的結核病現況...................................................................... 12 2.2.3 結核病防治計畫.......................................................................... 14 2.3 結核病的現行治療................................................................................. 17 2.3.1 結核病的治療藥物...................................................................... 17 2.3.2 活動性結核病之治療.................................................................. 20 2.3.3 潛伏性結核病感染之治療........................................................... 26 2.3.4 抗藥性結核病之治療.................................................................. 29 2.4 抗結核病治療依順性之相關因子.......................................................... 31 2.4.1 菸酒習慣...................................................................................... 34 2.4.2 藥物不良反應.............................................................................. 35 2.4.3 多重抗藥性.................................................................................. 36 2.5 抗結核病藥物之不良反應..................................................................... 37 2.5.1 藥物不良反應之發生率.............................................................. 37 2.5.2 藥物不良反應之危險因子........................................................... 40 2.6 吸菸與結核病的相關性之文獻............................................................. 43 2.6.1 結核病之發生率.......................................................................... 43 2.6.2 結核病死亡率.............................................................................. 47 第三章 研究目的.................................................................................................... 48 第四章 研究方法.................................................................................................... 49 4.1 研究設計................................................................................................. 49 4.2 研究對象................................................................................................. 50 ii 4.2.1 臨床案例來源.............................................................................. 50 4.2.2 研究對象的納入與排除標準....................................................... 50 4.2.3 研究對象之配對條件與配對方法............................................... 52 4.3 資料收集................................................................................................. 54 4.4 研究項目定義......................................................................................... 56 4.4.1 吸菸狀況之定義.......................................................................... 56 4.4.2 治療結果之定義.......................................................................... 56 4.4.3 藥物不良反應之定義.................................................................. 57 4.5 資料統計分析......................................................................................... 62 4.5.1 研究對象基本資料分析.............................................................. 64 4.5.2 抗結核病藥物治療結果的相關變項........................................... 64 4.5.3 抗結核病藥物不良反應相關變項............................................... 65 4.5.4 混淆因子與多變數分析.............................................................. 65 第五章 研究結果.................................................................................................... 66 5.1 研究對象初步資料分析......................................................................... 66 5.1.1 個案之治療狀況.......................................................................... 67 5.1.2 配對個案基本資料之比較........................................................... 69 5.1.3 配對個案現有疾病之比較........................................................... 71 5.2 吸菸與抗結核藥物治療結果之比較...................................................... 72 5.2.1 現在吸菸習慣與抗結核藥物治療結果之比較........................... 72 5.2.2 曾經吸菸與抗結核藥物治療結果之比較................................... 73 5.2.3 整體吸菸狀況與抗結核藥物治療結果之比較........................... 74 5.2.4 治療完成率之多變項分析........................................................... 75 5.2.5 失落率之多變項分析.................................................................. 78 5.3 抗結核藥物治療期間不良反應之發生.................................................. 81 5.3.1 現在吸菸習慣與藥物不良反應之比較....................................... 81 5.3.2 曾經吸菸與藥物不良反應之比較............................................... 83 5.3.3 整體吸菸狀況與藥物不良反應導致藥物改變的危險性........... 85 5.4 有飲酒習慣的次族群分析..................................................................... 86 第六章 討論............................................................................................................ 88 6.1 研究限制................................................................................................. 88 6.2 配對分析之原因..................................................................................... 89 6.3 失落之相關危險因子............................................................................. 90 6.4 吸菸不飲酒與非吸菸不飲酒組於治療完成時間之差異...................... 93 6.5 吸菸與飲酒之混淆性............................................................................. 94 6.6 未來展望................................................................................................. 95 第七章 結論............................................................................................................ 96 參考文獻.................................................................................................................... 97
參考文獻 1. Why is tobacco a public health priority? Tobacco Free Initiative, WHO/Noncommunicable Disease and Mental Health. (Accessed 12/5, 2004, at http://www.who.int/tobacco/health_priority/en/.) 2. World Health Organization. The Tobacco Atlas. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2003. 3. 國民健康局人口與健康調查研究中心:「民國九十一年國民健康促進知識、 態度與行為調查」之成果報告,2002。網址: [http://www.bhp.doh.gov.tw/asp/statistics/file/200311121037432ZR5YS/index.ht m] 4. Shafey O, Dolwick S, Guindon GE. Tobacco Control Country Profiles. Second ed. Atlanta: American Cancer Society, World Health Organization, and International Union Against Cancer; 2003. 5. 行政院衛生署:菸害防制。中華民國公共衛生年報。台北市:行政院衛生署; 1998。 6. 行政院衛生署:菸害防制。中華民國九十三年版公共衛生年報。台北市:行 政院衛生署; 2004。 7. 行政院衛生署國民健康局。「台灣菸害防制」手冊 (Tobacco Control in Taiwan, 2004)。台中市:行政院衛生署國民健康局;2004。 8. 戒菸專線服務中心。網址:[http://www.tsh.org.tw/index01.asp] 9. 曾巨威:菸品健康福利捐的課徵意義與修法。台北:財團法人國家政策研究 基金會。2005 年5 月11 日,財金 (評) 094-082 號。 10. 顏真真:香菸健康捐每包調至10 元。中華日報。2005 年5 月27 日。 11. Sunyer J, Anto JM, Kogevinas M, Soriano JB, Tobias A, Munoz A. Smoking and bronchial responsiveness in nonatopic and atopic young adults. Spanish Group of the European Study of Asthma. Thorax 1997;52(3):235-8. 12. Siafakas NM, Vermeire P, Pride NB, et al. Optimal assessment and management of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The European Respiratory Society Task Force. Eur Respir J 1995;8(8):1398-420. 13. Burchfiel CM, Marcus EB, Curb JD, et al. Effects of smoking and smoking cessation on longitudinal decline in pulmonary function. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 1995;151(6):1778-85. 14. Sherrill DL, Enright P, Cline M, Burrows B, Lebowitz MD. Rates of decline in lung function among subjects who restart cigarette smoking. Chest 1996;109(4):1001-5. 15. Pelkonen M, Notkola IL, Tukiainen H, Tervahauta M, Tuomilehto J, Nissinen A. 98 Smoking cessation, decline in pulmonary function and total mortality: a 30 year follow up study among the Finnish cohorts of the Seven Countries Study. Thorax 2001;56(9):703-7. 16. Dua K, Bardan E, Ren J, Sui Z, Shaker R. Effect of chronic and acute cigarette smoking on the pharyngo-upper oesophageal sphincter contractile reflex and reflexive pharyngeal swallow. Gut 1998;43(4):537-41. 17. Dicpinigaitis PV. Cough reflex sensitivity in cigarette smokers. Chest 2003;123(3):685-8. 18. Ebihara S, Ebihara T, Okazaki T, Sasaki H. Cigarette smoking, cough reflex, and respiratory tract infection. Arch Intern Med 2005;165(7):814. 19. Arcavi L, Benowitz NL. Cigarette smoking and infection. Arch Intern Med 2004;164(20):2206-16. 20. Miller LG, Goldstein G, Murphy M, Ginns LC. Reversible alterations in immunoregulatory T cells in smoking. Analysis by monoclonal antibodies and flow cytometry. Chest 1982;82(5):526-9. 21. Almirall J, Bolibar I, Balanzo X, Gonzalez CA. Risk factors for community-acquired pneumonia in adults: a population-based case-control study. Eur Respir J 1999;13(2):349-55. 22. Nuorti JP, Butler JC, Farley MM, et al. Cigarette smoking and invasive pneumococcal disease. Active Bacterial Core Surveillance Team. N Engl J Med 2000;342(10):681-9. 23. Faber MS, Fuhr U. Time response of cytochrome P450 1A2 activity on cessation of heavy smoking. Clin Pharmacol Ther 2004;76(2):178-84. 24. Benowitz NL, Peng M, Jacob P, 3rd. Effects of cigarette smoking and carbon monoxide on chlorzoxazone and caffeine metabolism. Clin Pharmacol Ther 2003;74(5):468-74. 25. Zevin S, Benowitz NL. Drug interactions with tobacco smoking. An update. Clin Pharmacokinet 1999;36(6):425-38. 26. Mandell GL, Bennett JE, Dolin R. Principles & Practice of Infectious Diseases. 5th edition ed: Churchill Livingstone, Inc.; 2000. 27. World Health Organization. Annexes of Global TB Control Report. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2005. 28. Country Profiles on Tuburculosis. World Health Organization, 2005. (Accessed June 5, 2005, at http://www.who.int/GlobalAtlas/PDFFactory/TB/index.asp.) 29. 行政院衛生署衛生統計資訊網:台灣地區主要死亡原因,2004。網址: [http://www.doh.gov.tw/statistic/data/死因摘要/93 年/93.htm] 30. 行政院衛生署衛生統計資訊網:台灣地區歷年結核病死亡率,2003。網址: [http://www.doh.gov.tw/statistic/統計年報/st2_92_5.htm] 99 31. 行政院衛生署:重要傳染病防治─結核病防治。中華民國九十三年版公共衛 生年報。台北市:行政院衛生署;2004。 32. 結核病防治工作手冊。行政院衛生署疾病管制局結核病防治組,2004。網址: [http://203.65.72.83/ch/dt/upload/TB_HANDBOOK/TB_handbook.htm] 33. 傳染病防治法,2004 年1 月20 日修正。行政院法務部,全國法規資料庫。 網址:[http://law.moj.gov.tw/Scripts/Query4B.asp?FullDoc=所有條文 &Lcode=L0050001] 34. World Health Organization. Global Tuberculosis Control : Surveillance, Planning, Financing. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2004. Report No.: WHO/HTM/TB/2004.331. 35. 照顧結核病患,醫療補助新方案上路。行政院衛生署疾病管制局結核病防治 組,2004。網址:[http://203.65.72.83/ch/dt/ShowPublication.ASP?RecNo=3578] 36. Blumberg HM, Burman WJ, Chaisson RE, et al. American Thoracic Society/Centers for Disease Control and Prevention/Infectious Diseases Society of America: treatment of tuberculosis. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2003;167(4):603-62. 37. World Health Organization. Treatment of Tuberculosis: Guidelines for National Programmes. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2003. Report No.: WHO/CDS/TB/2003.313. 38. 藥物、醫療器材、化妝品許可證查詢作業系統。網址: [http://203.65.100.151/DO8180.asp] 39. Mazurek GH, Villarino ME, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Guidelines for using the QuantiFERON-TB test for diagnosing latent Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. MMWR Recomm Rep 2003;52(RR-2):15-8. 40. Anonymous. Targeted tuberculin testing and treatment of latent tuberculosis infection. American Thoracic Society. MMWR Recomm Rep 2000;49(RR-6):1-51. 41. Food and Drug Administration. QuantiFERON-TB-P010033. Rockville: Food and Drug Administration; 2002. 42. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, American Thoracic Society. Update: adverse event data and revised American Thoracic Society / Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommendations against the use of rifampin and pyrazinamide for treatment of latent tuberculosis infection--United States, 2003. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2003;52(31):735-9. 43. Espinal MA, Kim SJ, Suarez PG, et al. Standard short-course chemotherapy for drug-resistant tuberculosis: treatment outcomes in 6 countries. JAMA 2000;283(19):2537-45. 100 44. Iseman MD. Treatment of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis. N Engl J Med 1993;329(11):784-91. 45. World Health Organization. Antituberculosis drug resistance in the world. Geneva: WHO; 1997. Report No.: WHO/TB/97.229. 46. World Health Organization. Antituberculosis drug resistance in the world: prevalence and trends. Report No. 2. Geneva: WHO; 2000. Report No.: WHO/CDS/TB/2000.278. 47. Leung CC, Yew WW, Chan CK, et al. Tuberculosis in older people: a retrospective and comparative study from Hong Kong. J Am Geriatr Soc 2002;50(7):1219-26. 48. Rocha M, Pereira S, Ferreira L, Barros H. The role of adherence in tuberculosis HIV-positive patients treated in ambulatory regimen. Eur Respir J 2003;21(5):785-8. 49. Pritchard AJ, Hayward AC, Monk PN, Neal KR. Risk factors for drug resistant tuberculosis in Leicestershire--poor adherence to treatment remains an important cause of resistance. Epidemiol Infect 2003;130(3):481-3. [Abstract] 50. Sharma SK, Turaga KK, Balamurugan A, et al. Clinical and genetic risk factors for the development of multi-drug resistant tuberculosis in non-HIV infected patients at a tertiary care center in India: a case-control study. Infect Genet Evol 2003;3(3):183-8. 51. Pablos-Mendez A, Knirsch CA, Barr RG, Lerner BH, Frieden TR. Nonadherence in tuberculosis treatment: predictors and consequences in New York City. Am J Med 1997;102(2):164-70. 52. Burman WJ, Cohn DL, Rietmeijer CA, Judson FN, Sbarbaro JA, Reves RR. Noncompliance with directly observed therapy for tuberculosis. Epidemiology and effect on the outcome of treatment. Chest 1997;111(5):1168-73. 53. Comolet TM, Rakotomalala R, Rajaonarioa H. Factors determining compliance with tuberculosis treatment in an urban environment, Tamatave, Madagascar. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis 1998;2(11):891-7. 54. Connolly C, Davies GR, Wilkinson D. Who fails to complete tuberculosis treatment? Temporal trends and risk factors for treatment interruption in a community-based directly observed therapy programme in a rural district of South Africa. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis 1999;3(12):1081-7. 55. Santha T, Garg R, Frieden TR, et al. Risk factors associated with default, failure and death among tuberculosis patients treated in a DOTS programme in Tiruvallur District, South India, 2000. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis 2002;6(9):780-8. 56. Chan-Yeung M, Noertjojo K, Leung CC, Chan SL, Tam CM. Prevalence and predictors of default from tuberculosis treatment in Hong Kong. Hong Kong Med 101 2003;9(4):263-8. 57. Samman Y, Krayem A, Haidar M, et al. Treatment outcome of tuberculosis among Saudi nationals: role of drug resistance and compliance. Clin Microbiol Infect 2003;9(4):289-94. 58. Salles CL, Conde MB, Hofer C, et al. Defaulting from anti-tuberculosis treatment in a teaching hospital in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis 2004;8(3):318-22. 59. Sevim T, Aksoy E, Atac G, et al. Treatment adherence of 717 patients with tuberculosis in a social security system hospital in Istanbul, Turkey. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis 2002;6(1):25-31. 60. Chang KC, Leung CC, Tam CM. Risk factors for defaulting from anti-tuberculosis treatment under directly observed treatment in Hong Kong. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis 2004;8(12):1492-8. 61. Marco A, Cayla JA, Serra M, et al. Predictors of adherence to tuberculosis treatment in a supervised therapy programme for prisoners before and after release. Study Group of Adherence to Tuberculosis Treatment of Prisoners. Eur Respir J 1998;12(4):967-71. 62. Wang PD. Epidemiology and control of tuberculosis in Taipei. J Infect 2002;45(2):82-7. 63. Leuenberger P, Zellweger JP. Drugs used in tuberculosis and leprosy. In: Duke MNG, Aronson JK, eds. Meyler's Side Effects of Drugs. Amsterdam: Elsevier Science B.V.; 2000. 64. Schaberg T, Rebhan K, Lode H. Risk factors for side-effects of isoniazid, rifampin and pyrazinamide in patients hospitalized for pulmonary tuberculosis. Eur Respir J 1996;9(10):2026-30. 65. Ohkawa K, Hashiguchi M, Ohno K, et al. Risk factors for antituberculous chemotherapy-induced hepatotoxicity in Japanese pediatric patients. Clin Pharmacol Ther 2002;72(2):220-6. 66. Sharma SK, Balamurugan A, Saha PK, Pandey RM, Mehra NK. Evaluation of clinical and immunogenetic risk factors for the development of hepatotoxicity during antituberculosis treatment. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2002;166(7):916-9. 67. 陳映蓉:抗結核藥物致肝毒性之前瞻性分析研究。國立臺灣大學,碩士論文, 2002。 68. Yee D, Valiquette C, Pelletier M, Parisien I, Rocher I, Menzies D. Incidence of serious side effects from first-line antituberculosis drugs among patients treated for active tuberculosis. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2003;167(11):1472-7. 69. 蕭斐元:預測抗結核藥物治療期間肝毒性之評分系統的建立。臺北醫學大 102 學,碩士論文,2003。 70. Shakya R, Rao BS, Shrestha B. Incidence of hepatotoxicity due to antitubercular medicines and assessment of risk factors. Ann Pharmacother 2004;38(6):1074-9. 71. Cohn DL, Catlin BJ, Peterson KL, Judson FN, Sbarbaro JA. A 62-dose, 6-month therapy for pulmonary and extrapulmonary tuberculosis. A twice-weekly, directly observed, and cost-effective regimen. Ann Intern Med 1990;112(6):407-15. 72. Koumbaniou C, Nicopoulos C, Vassiliou M, et al. Is pyrazinamide really the third drug of choice in the treatment of tuberculosis? Int J Tuberc Lung Dis 1998;2(8):675-8. 73. Gordin F, Chaisson RE, Matts JP, et al. Rifampin and pyrazinamide vs isoniazid for prevention of tuberculosis in HIV-infected persons: an international randomized trial. JAMA 2000;283(11):1445-50. 74. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Trends in tuberculosis--United States, 2004. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2005;54(10):245-9. 75. Faggiano F, Vigna-Taglianti FD, Versino E, Salamina G, Bugiani M. Tuberculosis incidence in Turin, Italy, 1973-1999. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis 2004;8(2):171-9. 76. Kandula NR, Dworkin MS, Carroll MR, Lauderdale DS. Tuberculosis prevention in Mexican immigrants: limitations of short-course therapy. Am J Prev Med 2004;26(2):163-6. 77. Mehta JB, Roy TM, Hughes SK, Byrd RP, Jr., Harvill LM. Demographic changes in tuberculosis: high risk groups. South Med J 1999;92(3):280-4. 78. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Tuberculosis transmission in a homeless shelter population--New York, 2000-2003. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2005;54(6):149-52. 79. Levy MH, Connolly MA, O'Brien RJ. Cigarette smoking as a risk factor for tuberculosis in young adults: a case-control study. Tuber Lung Dis 1996;77(6):570. 80. Altet MN, Alcaide J, Plans P, et al. Passive smoking and risk of pulmonary tuberculosis in children immediately following infection. A case-control study. Tuber Lung Dis 1996;77(6):537-44. 81. Alcaide J, Altet MN, Plans P, et al. Cigarette smoking as a risk factor for tuberculosis in young adults: a case-control study. Tuber Lung Dis 1996;77(2):112-6. 82. Kolappan C, Gopi PG. Tobacco smoking and pulmonary tuberculosis. Thorax 2002;57(11):964-6. 83. Leung CC, Li T, Lam TH, et al. Smoking and tuberculosis among the elderly in Hong Kong. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2004;170(9):1027-33. 84. Gajalakshmi V, Peto R, Kanaka TS, Jha P. Smoking and mortality from 103 tuberculosis and other diseases in India: retrospective study of 43000 adult male deaths and 35000 controls. Lancet 2003;362(9383):507-15. 85. Edwards IR, Aronson JK. Adverse drug reactions: definitions, diagnosis, and management. Lancet 2000;356(9237):1255-9. 86. Danan G, Benichou C. Causality assessment of adverse reactions to drugs--I. A novel method based on the conclusions of international consensus meetings: application to drug-induced liver injuries. J Clin Epidemiol 1993;46(11):1323-30. 87. Benichou C, Danan G, Flahault A. Causality assessment of adverse reactions to drugs--II. An original model for validation of drug causality assessment methods: case reports with positive rechallenge. J Clin Epidemiol 1993;46(11):1331-6. 88. Schumock GT, Thornton JP. Focusing on the preventability of adverse drug reactions. Hosp Pharm 1992;27(6):538. 89. Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events, version 3. National Cancer Institute, 2003. (Accessed April 25, 2005, at https://webapps.ctep.nci.nih.gov/ctcv2/plsql/ctc000w$.startup.) 90. About the ATC/DDD System. WHO Collaborating Centre for Drug Statistics Methodology, 2005. (Accessed 7, April, 2005, at http://www.whocc.no/atcddd/atcsystem.html.) 91. Rosenthal VD, Guzman S, Migone O, Crnich CJ. The attributable cost, length of hospital stay, and mortality of central line-associated bloodstream infection in intensive care departments in Argentina: A prospective, matched analysis. Am J Infect Control 2003;31(8):475-80. 92. 蘇東平、陳曾基、黃信彰、周麗芳、吳佩真、陳育群:台灣精神治療藥品的 利用情形─西元2000 年門診部門綜覽。中華醫學雜誌。2002;65:378-91. 93. Jasmer RM, Daley CL. Rifampin and pyrazinamide for treatment of latent tuberculosis infection: is it safe? Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2003;167(6):809-10. 94. Riffenburgh RH. Statistics in Medicine. San Diego: Academic Press; 1999. 95. Bayer R, Wilkinson D. Directly observed therapy for tuberculosis: history of an idea. Lancet 1995;345(8964):1545-8.
論文全文使用權限
  • 不同意授權瀏覽/列印電子全文服務。


  • 若您有任何疑問,請與我們聯絡!
    臺北醫學大學 圖書館 簡莉婷
    E-mail:etds@tmu.edu.tw
    Tel:(02) 2736-1661 ext.2519
    Fax:(02) 2737-5446